The following Army correspondence from the 23rd Ohio Infantry Regiment was sent from the regiment's camp near Sharpsburg, Md., a week following the Battle of Antietam. The letter was directed to the editor of the Mahoning Register:
''After a lengthy period of silence, I again address you. I need only say, by way of apology, that we have been so constantly on the move since the sixth of September as to leave no time for correspondence. I have no doubt, however, that a detailed account of the movements of General Jacob Cox's division, since joining the Grand Army of the Potomac, may be interesting to your readers, even at this late day.
''When we first arrived in eastern Virginia, we were placed on the outer line of defense of the city of Washington, but did not remain long in that position. When Stonewall Jackson made his first appearance in Maryland, our division was put in advance of Burnside's army, and headed towards old Stonewall.
''Nothing of interest transpired until noon of Friday, the 12th. We had left Ridgeville early in the morning, expecting a skirmish at or near New Market, some eight or 10 miles distant. When we reached the latter place, we found it minus any Rebel soldiers, but, like all the places here in Maryland, full of secession sympathizers, or conditional Union men.
''When about four miles distant, our cavalry came upon the enemy's pickets, consisting of cavalry and two pieces of artillery. Two pieces of Simmons' 20th Parrot guns were at once brought forward, and the Rebels were soon non est.
''When we got within two miles of Frederick, Md., we learned that the place was occupied by about 2,000 Rebel cavalry under General Stewart, together with one battery strongly supported by infantry. The Rebel cavalry charged on our battery, but the 11th Ohio promptly met and repulsed them, and entered the town on the left, as the 122, 23rd, and 28th came in on the right.
''The Rebels fled, leaving a good many behind, most of whom had too many sheets fluttering to know exactly what was going on - in other words - were too drunk. We captured in, counting their sick in the hospitals, about 100 prisoners.
''We were welcomed by the people of Frederick with tears and shouts, and flags waving from the housetops and windows. The streets were thronged with citizens, who manifested their joy at being thus delivered from their secesh [secessionist] friends.
''On the following morning we learned that the Rebels had taken up a position about four miles distant and had stationed themselves behind their artillery on a range above commanding the plain below. Our artillery and cavalry were sent forward to engage them, and soon succeeded in silencing their guns.
''Our cavalry following them up closely, several skirmishes ensued. We took 40 prisoners, and in the afternoon pushed forward eight miles to Middletown.
''On Sunday morning we got ready for an early start, and by 6 o'clock were in ranks, and for the first time were to march without knapsacks. We were obliged to ford a stream on starting, for the Rebels had burned the bridge the day previous.
''We had marched but two miles when we found the Rebels holding a formidable position on a mountain a little in advance. Cox's Division, which consists of the 11th, 12th, 23rd, 28th, 30th and 36th Ohio regiments, and McMullin's and Simmons' Ohio batteries, were ordered to take the extreme left and attack the enemy's flank, while the remainder of General Reno's corps would engage his center.
''Simmons' battery took a position in a plowed field to the left of the road, and opened a heavy fire of shell upon the enemy, with a design to draw him out and discover his position. The Rebels did not reply for some time.
''In the meantime, our infantry were following a bridle path over the mountain, and soon the 23rd, who were in the advance, discovered two brigades of the enemy coming out of the woods and taking a position behind a stone fence.
''Our regiment immediately formed in line, marched down the mountain and engaged them. We advanced steadily forward, and soon drove them from their position into a heavy piece of woods.
''Our regiment suffered severely in this charge. Our colonel, Rutherford B. Hayes, was wounded in the left arm almost at first fire, and was compelled to leave the field. Major Comly then took command, and throughout the entire day exhibited remarkable coolness and bravery. ...
''We lay for half and hour within 30 yards of the enemy, without their being made aware of our close proximity. The order was then given for the 12th and 23rd to prepare to charge the enemy. With bayonets fixed we stealthily crawled to the summit of the hill, when the order was given, 'Up and at them!'
''At the word, every man promptly sprang to his feet, and with a deafening shout rushed forward. A deadly fire was poured into our ranks, but we gave them a far more destructive volley, and then charged upon them with our bayonets. The Rebels fled in confusion before our furious onset, leaving a great many dead and dying on the field.
''We followed every man ready and determined not to give back an inch should the enemy rally and return to the contest. This, however, they did not see fit to do. We remained resting on our arms for about an hour, exposed to a heavy fire of grape and canister from the enemy's batteries.
''About 4 o'clock we were again ordered into line to silence a battery that was pouring its iron hail into our ranks. The 12th was ordered to charge the battery, the line being formed as follows: the 12th in advance and center, the 36th in the rear, the 23rd and 11th on the left flank, and the 28th and 30th on the right flank.
''At precisely 4 o'clock the bugle sounded the charge, and we bounded forward. The Rebels withdrew their battery, however, in time to prevent its being captured by the veteran 12th.
''We were obliged to contest every inch of the ground until we had gained the summit of the mountain. When this was accomplished, the enemy fled down the opposite side and the day was ours and won solely by Cox's division of Ohio boys.
''At one time during the charge, General Cox sent word to Colonel White of the 12th to 'hang on'; he did not doubt but we were doing all we could but to hang on a few minutes longer. Colonel White replied, 'General, we are driving them and we have no wish to stop as long as a Rebel lives.'
''After routing the enemy, we were ordered to the rear to rest. Several times during the evening they made an attempt to retake their lost ground. Fighting was kept up until about 9 o'clock that night, when the Rebels withdrew under cover of darkness.
''Our loss, as near I can learn, was about 120 killed and 600 wounded. Of this number, the 23rd Regiment lost 33 killed and 115 wounded and eight or 10 missing. Company E lost two killed and six wounded.
''I cannot speak too highly of the conduct of our officers on this occasion. General Cox proved himself to be no ordinary man. In consideration of his gallantry as a soldier, and ability as an officer, he has been assigned to command the corps of the brave General Jesse Reno, who was killed in action about dusk that evening. Colonel Eliakim Scammon, who has proved himself a thorough military man, now commands the Ohio Division. Colonel Ewing of the 30th commands our brigade. ...
''Yours as ever, Philo''
Compiled by members of the CW150 Committee of Warren's Sutliff Museum.